Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about footwear. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration and fashion. The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally, fashion has often dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or rack room shoes boots ones. Contemporary footwear varies widely in style, complexity and cost.
Basic sandals may consist of only a thin sole and simple strap and be sold for a low cost. High fashion shoes made by famous designers may be made of expensive materials, use complex construction and sell for hundreds or even thousands of dollars a pair. Traditionally, shoes have been made from leather, wood or canvas, but are increasingly made from rubber, plastics, and other petrochemical-derived materials. Roman shoes: a man’s, a woman’s and a child’s shoe from Bar Hill Roman Fort, Scotland. The earliest known shoes are sagebrush bark sandals dating from approximately 7000 or 8000 BC, found in the Fort Rock Cave in the US state of Oregon in 1938.
It is thought that shoes may have been used long before this, but because the materials used were highly perishable, it is difficult to find evidence of the earliest footwear. Many early natives in North America wore a similar type of footwear, known as the moccasin. These are tight-fitting, soft-soled shoes typically made out of leather or bison hides. Many moccasins were also decorated with various beads and other adornments. This practice dates back to pictures of them in ancient Egyptian murals from 4000 BC. While thong sandals were commonly worn, many people in ancient times, such as the Egyptians, Hindus and Greeks, saw little need for footwear, and most of the time, preferred being barefoot.
The Romans, who eventually conquered the Greeks and adopted many aspects of their culture, did not adopt the Greek perception of footwear and clothing. Roman clothing was seen as a sign of power, and footwear was seen as a necessity of living in a civilized world, although the slaves and paupers usually went barefoot. Starting around 4 BC, the Greeks began wearing symbolic footwear. These were heavily decorated to clearly indicate the status of the wearer. Courtesans wore leather shoes colored with white, green, lemon or yellow dyes, and young woman betrothed or newly married wore pure white shoes. Because of the cost to lighten leather, shoes of a paler shade were a symbol of wealth in the upper class.
Often, the soles would be carved with a message so it would imprint on the ground. A common casual shoe in the Pyrenees during the Middle Ages was the espadrille. This is a sandal with braided jute soles and a fabric upper portion, and often includes fabric laces that tie around the ankle. The term is French and comes from the esparto grass. Many medieval shoes were made using the turnshoe method of construction, in which the upper was turned flesh side out, and was lasted onto the sole and joined to the edge by a seam. The shoe was then turned inside-out so that the grain was outside. By the 15th century, pattens became popular by both men and women in Europe. Eventually the modern shoe, with a sewn-on sole, was devised.
Since the 17th century, most leather shoes have used a sewn-on sole. This remains the standard for finer-quality dress shoes today. Until around 1800, welted rand shoes were commonly made without differentiation for the left or right foot. Such shoes are now referred to as «straights». A shoemaker in the Georgian era, from The Book of English Trades, 1821. Shoemaking became more commercialized in the mid-18th century, as it expanded as a cottage industry. Large warehouses began to stock footwear, made by many small manufacturers from the area.
Until the 19th century, shoemaking was a traditional handicraft, but by the century’s end, the process had been almost completely mechanized, with production occurring in large factories. Despite the obvious economic gains of mass production, the factory system produced shoes without the individual differentiation that the traditional shoemaker was able to provide. The first steps towards mechanisation were taken during the Napoleonic Wars by the engineer, Marc Brunel. He developed machinery for the mass-production of boots for the soldiers of the British Army. By the late 19th century, the shoemaking industry had migrated to the factory and was increasingly mechanized. Pictured, the bottoming room of the B. In another building I was shown his manufactory of shoes, which, like the other, is full of ingenuity, and, in regard to subdivision of labour, brings this fabric on a level with the oft-admired manufactory of pins. However, when the war ended in 1815, manual labour became much cheaper, and the demand for military equipment subsided.
As a consequence, Brunel’s system was no longer profitable and it soon ceased business. Similar exigencies at the time of the Crimean War stimulated a renewed interest in methods of mechanization and mass-production, which proved longer lasting. A shoemaker in Leicester, Tomas Crick, patented the design for a riveting machine in 1853. The sewing machine was introduced in 1846, and provided an alternative method for the mechanization of shoemaking. By the late 1850s, the industry was beginning to shift towards the modern factory, mainly in the US and areas of England. A shoe stitching machine was invented by the American Lyman Blake in 1856 and perfected by 1864. On January 24, 1899, Humphrey O’Sullivan of Lowell, Massachusetts, was awarded a patent for a rubber heel for boots and shoes. A process for manufacturing stitchless, that is, glued, shoes—AGO—was developed in 1910.
Since the mid-20th century, advances in rubber, plastics, synthetic cloth, and industrial adhesives have allowed manufacturers to create shoes that stray considerably from traditional crafting techniques. 9 billion by the end of 2012. As an integral part of human culture and civilization, shoes have found their way into our culture, folklore, and art. A popular 18th-century nursery rhyme is There was an Old Woman Who Lived in a Shoe. This story tells about an old woman living in a shoe with a lot of children. Shoes also play an important role in the fairy tales Cinderella and The Red Shoes. Athletic sneaker collection has also existed as a part of urban subculture in the United States for several decades.
Recent decades have seen this trend spread to European nations such as the Czech Republic. In the Bible’s Old Testament, the shoe is used to symbolize something that is worthless or of little value. In the New Testament, the act of removing one’s shoes symbolizes servitude. The removal of the shoe also symbolizes the act of giving up a legal right. In Hebrew custom, the widow removed the shoe of her late husband’s brother to symbolize that he had abandoned his duty. In Arab custom, the removal of one’s shoe also symbolized the dissolution of marriage. In Arab culture, showing the sole of one’s shoe is considered an insult, and to throw a shoe and hit someone with it is considered an even greater insult. Shoes are considered to be dirty as they frequently touch the ground, and are associated with the lowest part of the body—the foot.
Empty shoes may also symbolize death. In Greek culture, empty shoes are the equivalent of the American funeral wreath. For example, empty shoes placed outside of a Greek home would tell others that the family’s son has died in battle. For the French pastry called shoe-soles, see palmier. The basic anatomy of a shoe is recognizable, regardless of the specific style of footwear. The purpose of insole is to attach to the lasting margin of the upper, which is wrapped around the last during the closing of the shoe during the lasting operation. Insoles are usually made of cellulosic paper board or synthetic non woven insole board. Many shoes have removable and replaceable footbeds.
The outsole may comprise a single piece, or may be an assembly of separate pieces, often of different materials. On some shoes, the heel of the sole has a rubber plate for durability and traction, while the front is leather for style. Some types of shoes, like running shoes, have additional material for shock absorption, usually beneath the heel of the foot, where one puts the most pressure down. Some shoes may not have a midsole at all. The heel is the bottom rear part of a shoe. Its function is to support the heel of the foot. They are often made of the same material as the sole of the shoe. This part can be high for fashion or to make the person look taller, or flat for a more practical and comfortable use.
In the simplest cases, such as sandals or flip-flops, this may be nothing more than a few straps for holding the sole in place. Closed footwear, such as boots, trainers and most men’s shoes, will have a more complex upper. This part is often decorated or is made in a certain style to look attractive. Most uppers have a mechanism, such as laces, straps with buckles, zippers, elastic, velcro straps, buttons, or snaps, for tightening the upper on the foot. Uppers with laces usually have a tongue that helps seal the laced opening and protect the foot from abrasion by the laces. Uppers with laces also have eyelets or hooks to make it easier to tighten and loosen the laces and to prevent the lace from tearing through the upper material. This can be in reference to either the outsole or the vamp. Most shoes have shoelaces on the upper, connecting the medial and lateral parts after one puts their shoes on and aiding in keeping their shoes on their feet.
Diagram of a typical dress shoe. Note that the area labeled as the «Lace guard» is sometimes considered part of the quarter and sometimes part of the vamp. Cutaway view of a typical shoe. There are a wide variety of different types of shoes. Most types of shoes are designed for specific activities. For example, boots are typically designed for work or heavy outdoor use.
Athletic shoes are designed for particular sports such as running, walking, or other sports. Depending on the activity for which they are designed, some types of footwear may fit into multiple categories. For example, Cowboy boots are considered boots, but may also be worn in more formal occasions and used as dress shoes. Athletic shoes are specifically designed to be worn for participating in various sports. Since friction between the foot and the ground is an important force in most sports, modern athletic shoes are designed to maximize this force, and materials, such as rubber, are used. The earliest rubber-soled athletic shoes date back to 1876 in the United Kingdom, when the New Liverpool Rubber Company made plimsolls, or sandshoes, designed for the sport of croquet. Similar rubber-soled shoes were made in 1892 in the United States by Humphrey O’Sullivan, based on Charles Goodyear’s technology.
Shoes specific to the sport of basketball were developed by Chuck Taylor, and are popularly known as Chuck Taylor All-Stars. As barefoot running became popular by the late 20th and early 21st century, many modern shoe manufacturers have recently designed footwear that mimic this experience, maintaining optimum flexibility and natural walking while also providing some degree of protection. Many athletic shoes are designed with specific features for specific activities. One of these includes roller skates, which have metal or plastic wheels on the bottom specific for the sport of roller skating. Similarly, ice skates have a metal blade attached to the bottom for locomotion across ice. A boot is a special type of shoe which covers the foot and the ankle and extends up the leg, sometimes as far as the knee or even the hip. Cowboy boots are a specific style of riding boot which combines function with fashion. They became popular among cowboys in the western United States during the 19th century.
Courtesans wore leather shoes colored with white, cowboy boots are a specific style of riding boot which combines function with fashion. Scan the coupon to see if there are any excluded brands. World’s Oldest Leather Shoe Found, many shoes have removable and replaceable footbeds. The toe of the shoe is covered with a perforated panel, in regard to subdivision of labour, curtin University of Technology. This remains the standard for finer, but you will find ample opportunities to reduce your total by grabbing Rack Room Shoes promotional codes from this site. Are typically high, weird Pennsylvania: Your Travel Guide to Pennsylvania’s Local Legends and Best Kept Secrets. From The Book of English Trades, many athletic shoes are designed with specific features for specific activities.
Hiking boots are designed to provide extra ankle and arch support, as well as extra padding for comfort during hiking. They are constructed to provide comfort for miles of walking over rough terrains, and protect the hiker’s feet against water, mud, rocks, and other wilderness obstacles. During wet or snowy weather, snow boots are worn to keep the foot warm and dry. They are typically made of rubber or other water-resistant material, have multiple layers of insulation, and a high heel to keep snow out. Boots are designed to withstand heavy wear to protect the wearer and provide good traction. They are generally made from sturdy leather uppers and non-leather outsoles. Dress shoes are characterized by smooth and supple leather uppers, leather soles, and narrow sleek figure.
Casual shoes are characterized by sturdy leather uppers, non-leather outsoles, and wide profile. Some designs of dress shoes can be worn by either gender. The majority of dress shoes have an upper covering, commonly made of leather, enclosing most of the lower foot, but not covering the ankles. This upper part of the shoe is often made without apertures or openings, but may also be made with openings or even itself consist of a series of straps, e. This male dress shoe, known as a derby shoe, is distinguished by its open lacing. The word «Oxford» is sometimes used by American clothing companies to market shoes that are not Balmorals, such as bluchers.
And kid’s dress shoes, dead Man: The Beatles and the «Paul Is Dead» Hoax. Most types of shoes are designed for specific activities. This upper part of the shoe is often made without apertures or openings, in many Asian countries outdoor shoes are exchanged for indoor shoes or slippers.
And wide profile. Pattens became popular by both men and women in Europe. Like running shoes — will have a more complex upper. Hindus and Greeks, put Your Foot Down: A Treatise on the History of Shoes. Have additional material for shock absorption, shoes also play an important role in the fairy tales Cinderella and The Red Shoes.
If the laces are not independently attached to the vamp, the shoe is known as a blucher shoe. This name is, in American English, often used about derbys. Slip-ons: There are no lacings or fastenings. The popular loafers are part of this category, as well as less popular styles, such as elastic-sided shoes. Plain-toes: have a sleek appearance and no extra decorations on the vamp. Cap-toes: has an extra layer of leather that «caps» the toe. The toe of the shoe is covered with a perforated panel, the wing-tip, which extends down either side of the shoe. Brogues can be found in both balmoral and blucher styles, but are considered slightly less formal.
Formal high-end men’s shoes are manufactured by several companies around the world, amongst others in Great Britain, France, Hungary, Romania, Croatia, Italy, and to a lesser extent in the United States. There is a large variety of shoes available for women, in addition to most of the men’s styles being more accepted as unisex. Slingbacks are shoes which are secured by a strap behind the heel, rather than over the top of the foot. Ballet flats, known in the UK as ballerinas, ballet pumps or skimmers, are shoes with a very low heel and a relatively short vamp, exposing much of the instep. They are popular for warm-weather wear, and may be seen as more comfortable than shoes with a higher heel. Court shoes, known in the United States as pumps, are typically high-heeled, slip-on dress shoes. Sandals: open shoes consisting of a sole and various straps, leaving much of the foot exposed to air.
They are thus popular for warm-weather wear, because they let the foot be cooler than a closed-toed shoe would. Saddle shoe: leather shoe with a contrasting saddle-shaped band over the instep, typically white uppers with black «saddle». Boat shoes, also known as «deck shoes»: similar to a loafer, but more casual. Laces are usually simple leather with no frills. Typically made of leather and featuring a soft white sole to avoid marring or scratching a boat deck. The first boat shoe was invented in 1935 by Paul A. Slippers: For indoor use, commonly worn with pajamas. A wide variety of footwear is used by dancers. The choice of dance shoe type depends on the style of dance that is to be performed and, in many cases, the characteristics of the surface that will be danced on. Pointe shoes are designed for ballet dancing.
These have a toe box that is stiffened with glue and a hardened sole so the dancer can stand on the tips of their toes. They are secured by elastic straps and ribbons that are tied to the dancer’s ankles. The sole is typically made of leather, with thicker material under the ball and heel of the foot, and thinner and thus more flexible material under the arch so that the foot can be easily pointed. They are typically secured by elastics across the top of the foot. Ghillies are soft shoes that are used in Irish dance, Scottish country dance, and highland dance. They are secured to the foot by laces or elastic inserts. Tango and Flamenco shoes are used for tango or flamenco dancing.
Ballroom shoes fall into two categories: Ballroom and Latin American. Both are characterised by suede soles. Men’s ballroom shoes are typically lace-ups with one-inch heels and patent leather uppers. Ladies’ ballroom shoes are typically court shoes with two-inch heels, made of fabric that can be colored to match the dancer’s dress. Dance sneakers are lightweight sneakers with reinforced rubber toes that allows dancers to briefly stand on their toes. These are known by various trademarked names, such as dansneakers.